Kashi 50 da ɗigo 4 cikin 100 na al’ummar Nijar, mata ne, kuma suna cikin mawuyacin hali na talauci da rishin kariya. A fannin shari’a, fannoni da yawa kamar kiwon lafiya, da samun horo, da samun aiki, da sauran su, ana nuna ma mata bambanci da maza.

A Nijar, talauci yana cikin karkara kuma da wajen mata

A dalilin wasu miyagun al’adu da tabi’un wariya, mata suna cikin mawuyacin halin rayuwa a ƙasar Nijar. Hakan yake ƙasƙantar da su dangance da maza. Maza ne suke faɗi a ji, kuma su ne a gaban komi cikin harakokin al’umma, a lokacin da mata suke a gefe. Duk da yawan da suka fi, ba su da bakin Magana a kan fannoini da yawa.
A Nijar, mata sun fi fuskantar tsananin jahilci da baƙin talauci. Idan aka ɗauki maza da mata masu shekara 15 zuwa 49 waɗanda ba su taɓa samun wani ilimi ba, mata sun fi maza yawa, nesa ba kusa ba (kashi 84 bisa 100 na matan ; kashi 69 bisa 100 mazan).
Ƙungiyar raya ƙasashe masu tasowa ta majalisar ɗinkin duniya, a wani sharfinta na shekara ta 2007, ta nuna cewa rayuwar al’umma a ƙasar Nijar, ana yin ta a cikin talauci.
Wannan halin yana gurgunta yanayin siyasa, da na zamantakewa, da kuma tsare-tsaren muhalli a cikin ƙasa. Kamar yadda bayanai suka nuna, kashi 63 cikin 100 na al’ummar, suna fuskantar talaucin kuɗi har ƙasa da mizani (mutumen birni yana rayuwa da jikka 75 a shekara, na karkara kuwa da jikka 50) ; kashi 34 cikin 100 suna fuskantar tsananin talaucin kuɗi (mutumen birni yana rayuwa da jikka 50 a shekara, na karkara kuwa da jikka 35).
‘Yan Nijar 2 cikin 3 matalauta ne ; fiye da 4 cikin 5 mutanen karkara ne, kuma matalauta 3 cikin 4 matan aure ne.

An maida matan karkara a bayan fage saboda ba su samun amfanin wasu ayyukan kyautata rayuwa. Ba su iya taka rawa ga ayyukan ci-gaba a dalilin jahilci da talauci da suka yi musu yawa. Haka yana sanya su cikin halin da suke jin kamar ba su yin amfanin komi, sai dai zama a share ɗaya cikin iyali, ba tare da iya kawo komi ba.

Rishin adalci a fannin tattalin arziki

Mahimman halayen rishin adalcin da ake yi wa mata a fannin tattali arziki sun shafi mallakar hilaye, da samun bashin banki, da samun aiki. Ba su da cikakken ƴanci wajen hilayen noma da amfanin noman kuma yin aiki da dokokin tsarin zaman karkara.

Bambanci a fannin shari’a

Ko da yake an samu ci-gaba wajen samar ma mata ƴanci, fannin shari’a ragagge ne; babu kundin tsarin iyali. Yarjejeniya game da duk wani halin
nuna ma mata bambanci (CEDEF/CEDAW)
wadda majalisar ɗinkin duniya ta amince, da kuma karin bayanai na usular ƙasashen Afirka bi sa hakkin ɗan Adam, an yi lura da ƙasar Nijar ba ta rattaɓa hannu kan wasu matakai ba.

A cikin wani ƙudirinta mai lamba 99-30 na 13 ga watan Agusta 1999, ƙasar Nijar ta nuna rishin aminewarta da wasu matakai 5 na yarjejeniyar da aka ɗauka a ranar 18 ta Disamba 1976 a birnin ‘’New york’’ su ne : Nijar a cikin ayar doka ta 16, ba ta aminci da daidaici tsakanin maza da mata a game da ƴancin ƙayyade yawan ƴaƴa, da tsaƙaita haifuwa; da zaɓen sunan iyali ba.

Kuma a cikin ayar dokar, Nijar ba ta amince da daidaicin ƴanci tsakaninh maza da mata a cikin zaman aure, da rabuwarsa.
Bayan haka, ƙasar Nijar bat a amince da matakan da suka shafi shekarun yin aure ba, da daidaicin maza da mata wajen rabon gado ba, da zaɓen mazauni da sauran su. Waɗannan matakan sun samu soke-soken ra’ayi cewa sun saɓa wa dokokin shari’ar musulunci da al’adu. Waɗannan matakan rishin amincewar da Nijar ta ɗauka suna hana ruwa gudu wajen shimfiɗa daidaici tsakanin maza da mata, da samar ma mata ƴancin kai.

Yawancin lokaci, mazan da matan ba su san dokokin ba; har ma in dokokin sun fi amfanar matan, sai a riƙa yin rishin adalci wajen zartar da su.

Matsaloli a fiskar al’adu

A fannin al’adu ma, hakkokin mata suna fuskantar matsaloli.

Photo d'Alain Roux
Photo d’Alain Roux

A cikin rayuwar yau da kullum, mata suna ganin ƙasƙanci a misali wajen auren dole da na ƙanƙanan da ba su kai shekarun yin aure ba, da fannin kiwon lafiyarsu, da kuma gajeren karatu.