The 2005 famine showed how fragile the Nigerien agriculture is. The soil becomes less fertile with a growing population. Rainfalls is erratic and locusts seriously damage crops. On top of that the public administration is not set up to react effectively in case of problems.
The peasants get too deep in debt to survive; they pay back their debts in autumn by selling part of their harvest, taking the risk of being short of food the next spring. This recurring problem looks like a vicious circle. it is what happened in 2010.
In addition, since 2015 floods have destroyed the whole crops of some families.